By M. Bacon
This booklet introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading 3D seismic information. the themes it covers contain simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through expert geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the ebook could be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.
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Additional resources for 3-D Seismic Interpretation
Becausesuch a wavelethas the greatest resolution tbr any given bandwidth. Seismic sourcescannotbe zero-phasesince that would imply output before time zero. This has the maximum amount offronFloading of the waveletpossiblefor any given amplitude spectrum. During processingthe data are conveftedto zero-phase. To combatthis, if the zero-phase chosen,thenoneneedsto accountfor thephasedistortionwith depthby alsoapplying a deabsorptionfilter. Thus,the waveletremainsminimum-phase(but sinceit is not a constantphase theentiresectionlater wavelet,its changewith depthmakesit impossibleto zero-phase on).
29 Bin expansion. Flexi-binning is used so as to ensurc that each bin has a regular distribution of ffaces with thg futl range of offsets. Thrce examples ale illustrated here. Bin A is expanded for a near offset trace with relatively small expansion. Bin B is seeking a trace with larger offset. The bin expansion is greater and has thrown up three possibilities. The trace closest to the bin cente is the one that gets borrowed. Bin c already has a far offset trace and no bin expansion is required.
This meansthat each sourceis fired only every 50 m. 25. thehigherfrequencies. Thesetracesarethenused interyolatedto addonenewtracebetween CMPSUsuallyshotinterpolation togetherwith theoriginaldatato form better-sampled has beenperformedthe additional and when this is requiredfor multiple suppression (invented)ffacesare discarded. 41 - 3-Ddataprocessing Interpolation occurswithin the receiver gamer Shot posttron along theline a * a a rFa t a a a t r a a r a a a a a a ! a ! a a a a a a a a a * . a a a a r a a a * a a a t a a * a a a a a r a a a Traceswith a Common Midpoint Receiverpositionalong the line Fig.