3-D Seismic Interpretation by M. Bacon

By M. Bacon

This booklet introduces geophysicists and geologists to the means of reading 3D seismic information. the themes it covers contain simple structural interpretation and map-making; using three-D visualization equipment; interpretation of seismic amplitudes; the new release and use of AVO and acoustic impedance datasets; and time-lapse seismic mapping. Written through expert geophysicists with a long time of operating adventure within the oil undefined, the ebook could be essential for graduate scholars, researchers, and new entrants into the petroleum undefined.

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Becausesuch a wavelethas the greatest resolution tbr any given bandwidth. Seismic sourcescannotbe zero-phasesince that would imply output before time zero. This has the maximum amount offronFloading of the waveletpossiblefor any given amplitude spectrum. During processingthe data are conveftedto zero-phase. To combatthis, if the zero-phase chosen,thenoneneedsto accountfor thephasedistortionwith depthby alsoapplying a deabsorptionfilter. Thus,the waveletremainsminimum-phase(but sinceit is not a constantphase theentiresectionlater wavelet,its changewith depthmakesit impossibleto zero-phase on).

29 Bin expansion. Flexi-binning is used so as to ensurc that each bin has a regular distribution of ffaces with thg futl range of offsets. Thrce examples ale illustrated here. Bin A is expanded for a near offset trace with relatively small expansion. Bin B is seeking a trace with larger offset. The bin expansion is greater and has thrown up three possibilities. The trace closest to the bin cente is the one that gets borrowed. Bin c already has a far offset trace and no bin expansion is required.

This meansthat each sourceis fired only every 50 m. 25. thehigherfrequencies. Thesetracesarethenused interyolatedto addonenewtracebetween CMPSUsuallyshotinterpolation togetherwith theoriginaldatato form better-sampled has beenperformedthe additional and when this is requiredfor multiple suppression (invented)ffacesare discarded. 41 - 3-Ddataprocessing Interpolation occurswithin the receiver gamer Shot posttron along theline a * a a rFa t a a a t r a a r a a a a a a ! a ! a a a a a a a a a * . a a a a r a a a * a a a t a a * a a a a a r a a a Traceswith a Common Midpoint Receiverpositionalong the line Fig.

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