By Diana M. Goodwin (auth.)
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Neuropsychology, 1st Edition
BROCA'S SPEECH AREA: dominant frontal lobe; controls motor mechanisms concerned with articulation; complex coordination of muscles for speech; lesion disrupts the articulation of speech; see Broca's aphasia. BRODMANN'S AREAS OF THE CORTEX: vision: primary - area 17, secondary - areas 18 & 19, tertiary - 20 & 21; auditory: primary - area 41, secondary - areas 22 & 42; body senses: primary - areas 1,2, & 3; secondary - areas 5 & 7; tertiary - areas 7, 21, 22,37,39, & 40; motor: primary - area 4, secondary - area 6, eye movement - area 8, speech 44, tertiary - areas 9, 10, 11,45,46, & 47; see also the specific area numbers below: BRODMANN'S AREAS 1, 2, & 3: primary zones for body senses.
ATAXIA: lesion of one cerebellar hemisphere, especially the anterior lobe, causes disturbances in coordination of volitional movements of the ipsilateral arm and leg; patient may overshoot the mark (passed pointing); afferent disorder; movements characterized by an inappropriate range, rate, and strength of each of the various components of a motor act and by an improper combination of those components; see also lesions ofthe lateral and inferior cerebellum. ATAXIA OF BRUNS: inability to stand because of decomposition ofgait and upright stance; wide base, flexed posture, and small shuffling steps.
BRODMANN'S AREAS 7,40 lesion, left: righ t-Ieft confusion; righ t: construction apraxia; contralateral neglect. BRODMANN'S AREAS 8 & 9: controls voluntary gaze. BRODMANN'S AREAS 8 & 9 lesion: poor voluntary eye gaze. BRODMANN'S AREA 9 lesion: left: impaired response inhibition (perseveration) (Milner, 1964); severe inability to shift response sets on the Wisconsin Card Sort test. BRODMANN'S AREAS 9, 10, 11,45,46, & 47: tertiary zones of the frontal-lobe unit; prefrontal or granular frontal cortex; formation of intentions; integrated area of function ("the superstructure above all other parts of the cerebral cortex" - Luria, 1973b); executive functions.