By Francis Harvey PhD
New to This Edition
*Chapter on on-line mapping and large Data.
*New and up to date discussions of distant sensing, vector and raster information versions, position privateness, makes use of of geocoding, and different well timed topics.
*Chapter at the many makes use of of GIS, reminiscent of in industry analyses, emergency responding, and monitoring of epidemics.
*Section overviews and an end-of-book glossary.
*Modules and person chapters can be utilized sequentially or in any order.
*End-of-chapter overview questions with solutions, workouts, and prolonged routines for utilising theories and concepts.
*"In-Depth" sidebars providing a better examine key thoughts and applications.
*End-of-chapter hyperlinks to appropriate net resources.
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Additional info for A Primer of GIS, Second Edition: Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic Concepts
John Sinton was an important and active contributor to this group. Sinton devised a scheme for considering space, time, and properties in three possible roles: fixed, measured, and controlled. ). Measuring devices often use time intervals as the control. They produce information about a single place. People usually collect geographic information about multiple places by fixing the time and measuring characteristics of space or some other attribute, and controlling the space or attribute. The distinction between what is controlled and what is measured is important for geographic representation.
14 shown without any cartographic representation. mation is usually presented as maps, but tables, figures, and hybrid output forms are also legitimate output forms. Geographic information is what is used in GIS. Data is what information is before it is used and makes sense to the persons creating or using the geographic information or map. Earlier in this chapter, I compared geographic information to oxygen. Now, starting there, you can think of one of the effects of information: information has at least the potential of having an effect.
Because of the complexity of the world, even small aspects of it, and the challenges of representing the world, a number of choices are brought together in geographic representations and cartographic representations. Because of the large number of choices, cultures, fields of science, and professions rely on conventions and frameworks. Conventions are often unstated guidelines for representation. Frameworks are rules and procedures for dealing with the complexity of choices. Geographic information and maps have a great deal of power as a result of making portions of the world understandable.