By Mike Wright, Bart Clarysse, Philippe Mustar, Andy Lockett
This e-book advances our realizing of collage spin-off production and improvement in environments outdoors the high-tech clusters of the united states. whereas there was sizeable collage spin-off job the world over lately, a few significant points are little understood. The authors argue that the character of universities is altering as diminished public investment displays a public debate on their function in society. a huge point of this overseas phenomenon is an elevated emphasis at the commercialization of college study and on educational entrepreneurship. those new ventures consequently contain the spinning-off of know-how and data generated by way of universities. The authors undertake a multi-level procedure of their exam of college spin-offs. ecu case reports are particularly chosen to mirror the range of the institutional setting. specifically, devices of study regarding universities, know-how move workplaces, spin-off businesses, finance companies and person marketers and groups are greatly analysed in quantitative and qualitative stories. To finish, coverage implications for the longer term profitable improvement of spin-offs are pointed out. This interesting booklet will entice a wide-ranging viewers together with lecturers, coverage makers, researchers and practitioners with an curiosity in educational entrepreneurship and collage spin-offs, and, extra in general, in enterprise and administration and entrepreneurship.
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Additional resources for Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe
In all cases, all the members of the entrepreneurial team were involved in the study. Persuading team members to complete the questionnaire posed major challenges for the researchers. To examine issues relating to the perspective of ﬁnanciers, a questionnaire was sent in November 2003 to the 56 venture capital funds in the UK that identiﬁed themselves as being active investors in technology-based small ﬁrms according to the British Venture Capital Association (BVCA) deﬁnition of technology (BVCA, 2004).
Notes: The ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 155. The index is calculated as the ranking on the simple average of country percentile rankings on each of the ten topics covered in Doing Business in 2006. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Protecting investors Enforcing contracts Closing a business 22 Academic entrepreneurship in Europe accountant and other advisers to help them in this start-up process, which creates both a psychological and a ﬁnancial barrier to starting up a venture.
In France, the Innovation Act of 12 July 1999 aims primarily at ‘promoting the creation of technologically innovative ﬁrms’. In Italy, the 27 July 1999 decree enables university researchers and academic staﬀ to be seconded to start-ups, and the industry ministry’s November 2000 white paper deﬁnes the mobilization of ﬁnancial resources for technology spin-oﬀs from research. 1). Also in Sweden, the public authorities have done a lot to change attitudes and provide a framework for universities to commercialize new technology.