By Andrea Megela Simmons (auth.), Andrea Megela Simmons, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
In order to speak, animals ship and obtain indications which are topic to their specific anatomical, mental, and environmental constraints. This SHAR quantity discusses either the construction and notion of acoustic indications. Chapters tackle the knowledge that animals speak, how the verbal exchange is constructed and realized, and the way communique platforms have tailored and advanced inside of species. The e-book will supply examples from numerous species.
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Additional resources for Acoustic Communication
1 in Richardson et al. (1995). 00001 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 26 20 0 214 194 174 154 134 114 94 74 54 34 14 0 -6 -26 intensity or pressure. By indicating the accepted standard reference values for intensity or pressure, it will be immediately obvious which measure is being reported for either air or water. The relationship between intensity and pressure is easily confused. Remember that: (1) as sound intensity increases by some factor, pressure increases only by the square root of the factor; and (2) as pressure increases by some factor, sound intensity increases by the square of that factor (after Speaks 1992, p.
Refraction In cases where sound moves between media with different speciﬁc acoustic impedances, the direction of the incident sound wave will change because of changes in the speed of propagation of the sound wave according to what is known as Snell’s law (Weidner and Sells 1965; see discussion in Speaks 1992). This angular change in the wave’s direction is known as refraction. 3). Because water is essentially incompressible, sound speed is the dominant variable when considering underwater acoustic refraction, and the sound-velocity proﬁle is a critical measure for predicting refractive effects.
This ﬁgure illustrates that for coastal species (humpback and right whales) the overall frequency band of call energy is again well-matched to the ambient noise properties of the environment. However, it shows that for blue and ﬁn whale calls, the frequency band of greatest energy occurs in a region of high ambient noise. This discrepancy is somewhat surprising. Perhaps the explanation is related to the speciﬁc contexts in which these calls were recorded. , Clark 1983), occurring when animals were countercalling while separated by many miles.